Terminologies


  • MINING TERMS

    1983
    Mining Terminology Abutment - In coal mining, the weight of the rocks above a narrow roadway is transferred to the solid coal along the sides, which act as abutments of the arch of strata spanning the roadway; and the weight of the rocks over a long wall face is transferred to the front abutment, that is, the solid coal ahead of the face and the back abutment, that is, the settled packs behind the face Acid deposition or acid rain – Referring loosely to mixtures of wet and dry deposited…
  • METEOROLOGICAL WEATHER STATION TERMS

    1933
    A absolute humidity: the ratio of the mass of water vapor to the volume of air in which it is present.(g/m^3) acid rain: rain that has become acidic after contact with certain atmospheric gases (primarily sulfur dioxide, carbondioxide, and nitrogen oxides) afforestation: process of establishing a forest. air mass: a large body of air all of similar temperature and humidity. air pressure: barometric pressure; weight of the atmosphere at a particular point of interest. Some Meteorologists use hPa…
  • WATER TERMINOLOGY

    2123
    A acid - a substance that has a pH value between 0 and 7 acid deposition ("acid rain") - water that falls to or condenses on the Earth's surface as rain, drizzle, snow, sleet, hail, dew, frost, or fog with a pH of less than 5.6 acre-foot - the amount of water needed to cover one acre of land one foot deep; about 326,000 gallons adhesion - the attraction between molecules that causes matter to cling to or stick to other matter adjudication - a court determination of water rights for a…
  • WATER AND WASTEWATER TERMS

    1852
    Some Water and Waste Terminology Activated Carbon Filter: Water treatment process to remove taste, odor, some organic compounds, and radon. Adsorption: retention of a substance by soil particles. Aerobic: in the presence of or requiring oxygen. Agri-chemical: chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides) used in agricultural production. Algal Bloom: large, visible masses of algae found in bodies of water during warm water. Alkalinity: capacity of water to neutralize acids by its content of…
  • WASTE WATER TERMS

    1880
    Activated SludgeThe term "activated sludge" refers to a brownish flocculent culture of organisms developed in aeration tanks under controlled conditions. It is also Sludge floc produced in raw or settled waste water by the growth of zoological bacteria and other organisms in the presence of dissolved oxygen. Activated sludge is normally brown in colour. AlkalinityThe capacity of water to neutralize acids, a property imparted by the water's content of carbonates, bicarbonates, hydroxides, and…
  • TOTALIZERS AND ODOMETERS

    1977
    Most flow signals are normally regarded as rate signals. For example the Speedometer in your vehicle whether it is a needle or a digital device will go up and down according to the actual speed you are going When your car stops the speedometer goes to zero. It is the same with the flow meter, when the flow rate stops the flow signal goes to zero However, the ODOMETER or rather the milage counter reads reads the total number miles that has been driven. This can be compared to a simply to a…
  • TECHNICAL TERMS

    2601
    AAbnormal Failure: An artificially induced failure of a component, usually as a result of "abnormals" testing for regulatory agency safety compliance. Absolute Pressure Transducer: A transducer that has an internal reference chamber sealed at or close to 0 psia (full vacuum) and normally provides increasing output voltage for increases in pressure. Absolute Pressure: Gage pressure plus atmospheric pressure. Absolute Zero: Temperature at which thermal energy is at a minimum. Defined as 0 Kelvin,…
  • SENSOR AND SENSORS TERMINOLOGY

    1857
    Absolute Humidity - the mass of water vapor in a unit volume of gas mixture Absolute Pressure - the pressure exerted on a vacuum Acceleration - the time rate of change of velocity Adiabatic - a process which takes place without any exchange of heat between a system and its surrounding Ambient - surrounding or prevailing conditions Ampere or Amp - the metric unit for electric current Amp-Hour - a quantity of electricity equal to the integral of the current with time. Anemoclinometer - a device…
  • SEMICONDUCTOR TERMS

    1758
    Some Terms used in the Semiconductor Technology Acceptor Impurity An impurity added to an intrinsic semiconductor that will accept an electron from a neighboring atom to create a hole. Active Device A device that has gain or controls another circuit. Anode The positive terminal of a device. Avalanche breakdown Reverse voltage breakdown that occurs when electrons gain sufficient energy that when they collide with other atoms they can free further electrons, and thereby creating more majority…
  • PALM OIL GLOSSARY

    2869
    AntioxidantAn Antioxidant is a substance that will inhibit oxidation. Antioxidants are usually added to fats and oil and provide more stability and longer shelf life by delaying the onset of oxidative rancidity . Something that is rancid has a rank small or taste usually due to a chemical change or decompositionBleach/BleachingProcesses whereby a pigment, impurity, trace metal- gums and oxidized materials are removed from oils and fats by absorptive cleansing using bleaching clays or activated…
  • OIL WELL TERMS

    1334
    BCF Billion cubic feet BCFE Billion cubic feet (of gas) equivalent Bbl Barrel of oil BOE Barrel of oil equivalent BOP/BOP Stack Blowout preventers-blowout preventer stacks - are assemblies of heavy duty valves attached to wellheads to control well pressure and prevent a blowouts. Casing Steel pipes set in wells to prevent the hole from sloughing / caving and to enable formations to be isolated (there could be several strings of casing in the well, one inside the other) Cementing Pumping a…
  • OIL & GAS TERMS

    1569
    A Accumulation: Quantity of hydrocarbons (oil and natural gas) found in the reservoir rock in an oil or gas field.Alkylation: A chemical reaction that consists in fixing an alkyl radical onto a molecule.Appraisal well: A well drilled in order to evaluate the characteristics of a field.Assisted recovery: Set of techniques for increasing the productivity of a field.Associated gas: Gases present in the reservoir rock. B Ballast tank: A tank intended to be filled with seawater to keep floating…
  • NATURAL GAS TERMS

    1359
    Associated gas - natural gas produced with crude oil from the same reservoir Barrel - a unit of measure for oil and petroleum products that is equivalent to 42 U.S. gallons. Blowout - the uncontrolled flow of gas, oil or other fluids from a well Blowout preventer - the equipment installed at the wellhead to control pressures in the annular space between the casing and drill pipe or tubing during drilling, completion, and workover operations. See also Christmas tree. Brine - see produced…
  • MARITIME TERMS

    1629
    AA - Always Afloat (In some ports the ship aground when approaching, or at berth.)AAPA - American Association of Port Authorities. ABAFT - A point beyond the midpoint of a ships length, towards the rear or stern. ABANDON - A proceeding wherein a shipper/consignee seeks authority to abandon all or parts of their cargo. ABLE-BODIED SEAMAN - A member of the deck crew who is able to perform all the duties of an experienced seaman; certificated by examination; must have three years sea service. Also…
  • MARITIME FLOW & ACCURACY TERMS

    1618
    Accuracy - The ability of a measuring instrument to indicate values closely approximating the true value of the quantity measured. Alternate Innage - See GAGING Alternate Ullage - See GAGING All Levels Sample - See SAMPLING Ambient Temperature - The temperature of the surrounding medium such as the atmosphere. API - The American Petroleum Institute, founded in 1919 was the first oil trade association to include all branches of the petroleum industries API Gravity -Relative Density - A means…
  • LUBRICATION TERMS

    1767
    Abrasion a general wearing away of a surface by constant scratching, usually due to the presence of foreign matter such as dirt, grit, or metallic particles in the lubricant. It may also cause a break down of the material such as the tooth surfaces of gears. Lack of proper lubrication may result in abrasion Abrasive wear or cutting wear comes about when hard surface asperities or hard particles that have embedded themselves into a soft surface and plough grooves into the opposing harder…
  • HYDROLOGY TERMS

    2145
    A Ablation : The processes by which ice and snow dissipate owing to melting and evaporation. Abutment : The part of a valley or canyon wall against which a dam is constructed. Right and left abutments are those on respective sides of an observer looking downstream Abutment Seepage : Reservoir water that moves through seams or pores in the natural abutment material and exits as seepage. Acre-foot : The amount of water required to cover one acre to a depth of one foot. An acre-foot equals 326,851…
  • HVAC TERMS

    1465
    Definition of some common HVAC industry terms ABSOLUTE HUMIDITY - The weight of water vapor in a given amount of air. Grains per cubic foot ABSOLUTE PRESSURE - Pressure measured with a base of zero. ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE - A temperature scale expressed in degrees °F or °F using absolute zero as a base. Referred to as the Rankin or Kelvin scale. ABSOLUTE ZERO - The temperature at which molecular activity theoretically ceases. -456.69 °F or -273.16 AIR CONDITIONING - The process of controlling the…
  • FUEL AND OIL TERMS

    1728
    Abel tester: A closed-cup flash tester for kerosene and other types of oil Absolute pressure: Total pressure equal to gauge pressure plus 14.7 lbs./sq. in at sea level Acidity: The presence of acid-type constituents whose concentration is usually defined in terms of neutralization number. The constituents vary in nature and may or may not markedly influence the behavior of the oil Air-Fuel Ratio: The ratio of air weight to fuel weight consumed in an internal combustion engine or…
  • EXPLOSION PROOF & HAZARDOUS AREAS

    1499
    ApprovedAcceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. Arcing DeviceA device, such as make/ break component, that under normal conditions produces an arc with energy sufficient to cause ignition of an ignitable mixture. See also "nonincendive circuit." Associated ApparatusApparatus in which the circuits are not intrinsically safe themselves but affect the energy in the intrinsically safe circuits and are relied upon to maintain intrinsic safety. An example being an intrinsic safety…
  • ENGINE TERMS

    1495
    Absolute - This commonly refers to a feedback device such as a resolver or an absolute encoder that provides unique position information for each discrete shaft location and unlike an incremental feedback device which requires a known reference point an absolute feedback device retains position information when power to the system is momentarily lostAC induction motor -class of motors that derives its name from the fact that current is induced into the rotor windings without any physical…
  • Dielectric Constants of Common Materials

    1878
    MATERIALS DEG. F DIELECTRICCONSTANT ABS RESIN, LUMP 2.4-4.1 ABS RESIN, PELLET 1.5-2.5 ACENAPHTHENE 70 3 ACETAL 70 3.6 ACETAL BROMIDE 16.5 ACETAL DOXIME 68 3.4 ACETALDEHYDE 41 21.8 ACETAMIDE 68 4 ACETAMIDE 180 59 ACETAMIDE 41 ACETANILIDE 71 2.9 ACETIC ACID 68 6.2 ACETIC ACID (36 DEGREES F) 36 4.1 ACETIC ANHYDRIDE 66 21 ACETONE 77 20.7 ACETONE 127 17.7 ACETONE 32 1.0159 ACETONITRILE 70 37.5 ACETOPHENONE 75 17.3 ACETOXIME 24 3 ACETYL ACETONE 68 23.1 ACETYL BROMIDE 68 16.5 ACETYL CHLORIDE 68 15.8…
  • COASTAL TERMS

    1884
    AABRASIONThe mechanical wearing away by rock material transported by wind or waterABRASION PLATFORMA rock or clay platform which has been worn by the processes of abrasion. ACCELEROMETERA device used in wave buoys for measuring acceleration. ACCRETIONMay be either natural or artificial. Natural accretion is the buildup of land, solely by the action of the forces of nature, on a beach by deposition of water- or airborne material. Artificial accretion is a similar buildup of land by reason of an…
  • BOILER TERMINOLOGY

    1491
    Advanced Boiler Efficiency & Water Treatment - knowledge to overcome the issues that arise with regards to boiler water systems involving aspects of boiler water chemistry, advanced options in pre-treatment and internal treatment, various water treatment strategies using appropriate international water quality standards and codes, strategic techniques in controlling water chemistry and the measures to optimise boiler efficiency and operation Alkalinity – pH values above 7 Antifoam - A substance…
  • AVIATION TERMS GENERAL AVIATION

    1676
    ABSOLUTE ALTITUDE Is the measurable height of an aircraft above the actual terrain ABSOLUTE CEILING Is the maximum altitude above sea level at which an aircraft can maintain level flight under Standard Air conditions AGL (or also -Above Ground Level) Is the altitude expressed as feet above the terrain or the airport elevation AILERONS An aircraft control surface hinged to the rear, outer section of the wing for banking (“tilting”) the aircraft. Controlled by right or left movement of the…